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Researching Learning Behaviors


Summary table of sound enhancement efficacy studies demonstrating improvements in attending, listening and learning behaviors

Table data taken directly from Sound Field Amplification: Applications to Speech Perception and Classroom Acoustics (Second Edition) by Carl C. Crandell, Joseph J. Smaldino, and Carol Flexer.

Investigators Student Population Improvement in Attending, Listening and Learning Behaviors Obtained with SES*'s
Berg, Bateman, & Veihweg (1989) Regular education junior high school students Students and teachers preferred the use of SES*; students showed improved listening and understanding; and teachers noted ease of listening and teaching.
Gilman & Danzer (1989) 9 amplified and 9 control classes for second and fourth-grade regular education students Student attentiveness to verbal instruction and activities as well as ability to hear classroom instruction improved when using a FM SES*.
Allen & Patton (1990) First and second-grade students with normal hearing Student distractibility and request for repetitions decreased, and on-task behavior increased significantly (17%) with a SES*
Bitner, Prelock Ellis & Tzanis (1996) 2 groups of regular education second graders (attentive group and inattentive group) Sound field amplification produced significant increase in selective attending behaviors for students with difficulty listening to instruction, particularly in the presence of noise, over four three-week periods.
Palmer (1998) 8 kindergarten through second-grade students; single subject design. A significant decrease in inappropriate behaviors and a significant increase in appropriate behaviors were identified immediately following SES* treatment.
Allcock (1999) 3 amplified and 2 unamplified classrooms in New Zealand An 8 week observation with SES* (alternating 2 weeks on and 2 weeks off) found that with the amplification on, on-task behavior ranged from being 14% less on task to 50% more on task, with a mean of 18% more on-task time than when the system was off. Findings were similar for children with normal hearing and those with a hearing loss.
Rosenberg et al. (1999) ICA project (2,054 kindergarten through second-grade students in 94 regular education classes) Significantly higher scores were obtained by students in amplified classes for listening, academic/pre-academic behaviors, and academic/preacademic skills, with the greatest gains for amplified kindergartners.
Eriks-Brophy & Ayukawa (2000) 10 second-through third grade students with hearing loss and 10 age-matched peers. Significant improvements were noted in speech intelligibility scores for students with hearing loss and students with normal hearing with SES*. On-task behavior improvement was noted for 6 of 7 students when using sound field technology.
Loven, Fisk, & Johnson (2003) 48 students in two regular education second-grade classes Two-way ANOVA results showed a significant interaction between room treatment and time variables, indicating increased attention for students in the amplified classroom.


* SES = Sound Enhancement System