Summary table of sound enhancement efficacy studies demonstrating improvements in attending, listening and learning behaviors
||Improvement in Attending, Listening and Learning Behaviors Obtained with SES*'s
|Berg, Bateman, & Veihweg (1989)
||Regular education junior high school students
||Students and teachers preferred the use of SES*; students showed improved listening and understanding; and teachers noted ease of listening and teaching.
|Gilman & Danzer (1989)
||9 amplified and 9 control classes for second and fourth-grade regular education students
||Student attentiveness to verbal instruction and activities as well as ability to hear classroom instruction improved when using a FM SES*.
|Allen & Patton (1990)
||First and second-grade students with normal hearing
||Student distractibility and request for repetitions decreased, and on-task behavior increased significantly (17%) with a SES*
|Bitner, Prelock Ellis & Tzanis (1996)
||2 groups of regular education second graders (attentive group and inattentive group)
||Sound field amplification produced significant increase in selective attending behaviors for students with difficulty listening to instruction, particularly in the presence of noise, over four three-week periods.
||8 kindergarten through second-grade students; single subject design.
||A significant decrease in inappropriate behaviors and a significant increase in appropriate behaviors were identified immediately following SES* treatment.
||3 amplified and 2 unamplified classrooms in New Zealand
||An 8 week observation with SES* (alternating 2 weeks on and 2 weeks off) found that with the amplification on, on-task behavior ranged from being 14% less on task to 50% more on task, with a mean of 18% more on-task time than when the system was off. Findings were similar for children with normal hearing and those with a hearing loss.
|Rosenberg et al. (1999)
||ICA project (2,054 kindergarten through second-grade students in 94 regular education classes)
||Significantly higher scores were obtained by students in amplified classes for listening, academic/pre-academic behaviors, and academic/preacademic skills, with the greatest gains for amplified kindergartners.
|Eriks-Brophy & Ayukawa (2000)
||10 second-through third grade students with hearing loss and 10 age-matched peers.
||Significant improvements were noted in speech intelligibility scores for students with hearing loss and students with normal hearing with SES*. On-task behavior improvement was noted for 6 of 7 students when using sound field technology.
|Loven, Fisk, & Johnson (2003)
||48 students in two regular education second-grade classes
||Two-way ANOVA results showed a significant interaction between room treatment and time variables, indicating increased attention for students in the amplified classroom.